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Overview of all China's white papers on national defense

( Source: China Military Online  )         2015-May-27 23:04

  BEIJING, May 27 (ChinaMil) -- China's Military Strategy is the ninth white paper on national defense published by the Chinese government. An overview of all the defense white papers published by China over the years shows that each of them has distinctive characteristics.


  China's National Defense in 1998

  Published in July 1998, about 22,000 Chinese characters

  Keyword: cooperation

  This white paper created the first complete and systemic framework for China's white paper on national defense that was consistent with not only the international practices but also the Chinese characteristics. For the first time China systematically expounded on its defense policies and explicitly expressed its new outlook on security.

  It was also the first time that China made judgment about the cross-straits relation in a government document on national defense, reaffirming that "the Chinese government seeks to achieve the reunification of the country by peaceful means, but will not commit itself not to resort to force".


  China's National Defense in 2000

  Published in October 2000, about 24,000 Chinese characters

  Keyword: serious

  The white paper highlighted the serious security situation, emphasized that "in today's world, factors that may cause instability and uncertainty have markedly increased and the world is far from peaceful", and stressed that China always prioritizes safeguarding its sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity and safety.

  The section on defense policy especially expatiated on the Taiwan issue for the first time, reiterating that creating splittism means giving up peace across the Taiwan Straits.


  China's National Defense in 2002

  Published in December 2002, about 28,000 Chinese characters

  Keyword: coordination

  For the first time the white paper put forth five national interests as the fundamental basis for defense policy and systematically expounded on the military strategy and guideline in the new era.

  The new chapter on Armed Forces comprehensively introduced the composition of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA), the Chinese People's Armed Police Force and the Chinese militia.

  It also gave a special introduction to the Army, Navy, Air Force and the Second Artillery Force (SAF) of the PLA, and released the aircraft number of the aviation regiment as well as the aircraft-pilot ratio.


  China's National Defense in 2004

  Published in December 2004, about 31,000 Chinese characters

  Keyword: military reform

  The 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) proposed that the military shall accomplish the dual historical missions of mechanization and informatization. The white paper set aside an independent chapter on revolution in military affairs with Chinese characteristics, which comprehensively laid down the basic guidelines and principles for that purpose.

  It also expounded on a number of new topics for the first time, including "reducing the military staffs by 200,000", "intensifying the development of the Navy, Air Force and the SAF of the PLA " and "promoting informatization".


  China's National Defense in 2006

  Published in December 2006, about 25,000 Chinese characters

  Keyword: peaceful development

  The world is in a critical period of multi-polarization. For the first time this white paper put forth the concept of national security strategy and comprehensively analyzed China's security environment.

  It also publicized the main strategic thoughts on the development of the PLA Army, Navy, Air Force and the SAF as well as on China's nuclear strategy, and set aside an independent chapter to introduce the Chinese People's Armed Police Force and the information about border defense and coastal defense.


  China's National Defense in 2008

  Published in January 2009 , about 30,000 Chinese characters

  Keyword: defense expenditure

  For the first time the white paper introduced China's strategic blueprint for national defense development and expounded on the basic mission of China's strategic missile troops and the specific tasks of its nuclear missile forces.

  It set aside independent chapters on the PLA Army, Navy, Air Force and the SAF respectively for the first time and comprehensively introduced their development in such aspects as development history, structure and organization, and force building.

  Basic data about the expenditure on national defense in the 30 years since the reform and opening up, size of public security and border defense forces and scale of militia force were also publicized for the first time.


  China's National Defense in 2010

  Published in March 2011, about 29,000 Chinese characters

  Keyword: military mutual trust

  For the first time the white paper expounded on the issue of building the military security mechanism of mutual trust across the Taiwan Straits and comprehensively expatiated on the diversified employment of China's armed forces in peacetime.

  For the first time it introduced the military modernization drive since the founding of the People's Republic of China and set forth the Chinese military's efforts to establish the joint operation system.

  It also for the first time introduced the development of military legal system, implementation of laws and regulations, and military judicial system, systematically elaborated on the objectives and principles of building military mutual trust under new circumstances, and gave an all-round introduction to what China had done to promote military mutual trust in recent years.


  Diversified Employment of China's Armed Forces

  Published in April 2013, about 15,000 Chinese characters

  Keyword: innovation

  This was the first national defense white paper on a specific topic published by the Chinese government. While making new judgment of the security situation, the white paper illustrated the principles for diversified employment of China's armed forces and officially publicized the designations of the 18 Group Armies in the PLA Army for the first time.

  It also revealed the size of the PLA Army's operational troops, the PLA Navy and the Air Force as well as the missile types equipped in the SAF, making China's armed forces more transparent.


  China's Military Strategy

  Published in May 2015, about 9,000 Chinese characters

  Keywords: mission, task

  This is the first time that the Chinese government published a white paper specialized in China's military strategy. The white paper systematically expounded on the Chinese military's missions and strategic tasks in the new era for the first time, pointed out that the basic point in making preparation for military struggle (PMS) shall be focused on winning local wars in conditions of modern technology, and highlighted maritime military struggle and maritime PMS.

  In particular, a series of statements that have never appeared in previous white papers are included in China's Military Strategy, such as the PLA Navy shall be "in line with the strategic requirement of offshore waters defense and open seas protection", the PLA Air Force shall be “in line with the strategic requirement of building air-space capabilities and conducting offensive and defensive operations”, "the traditional mentality that land outweighs sea must be abandoned" and "expediting the development of a cyber force".

Editor :  Yao Jianing